Week #15 Essay, History
The Hundred Year’s War
The Hundred Year’s War lasted from 1337 to 1453 A.D. The Hundred Year’s War started with a disagreement between the king of England and the king of France over who was the rightful king of France in 1066 until 1300’s, when the war started.
There were 3 era’s of this war:
1st – The Edwardian Era (1337-1360)
2nd – The Caroline War (1369-1389)
3rd – The Lancastrian War (1415-1453)
The first battle in The Hundred Year’s War was on June 22, 1340. The English crushed the French in this battle known as the Battle of Sluys.
In 1346, Edward III of England led an English invasion and took the French city, Caen. This was known as the Battle of Crecy. In a follow-up attack, he captured Calais.
In 1348, The Black Death came and the war was put off for several years.
When the war started again, the English and French had new rulers. England’s new ruler was Edward III son, The Black Prince. France’s new king was John II.
England won the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. The English captured King John II and John’s son, the Dauphin, reigned in his place.
After the Battle of Poitiers, the French were in chaos, and during this time, their country was undefended.
In 1357, Charles of Navarre came to Paris and challenged Dauphins authority. Charles’ marshals were murdered and a peasant uprising happened known as the Jacquerie.
The Black Prince was hoping he could walk in during the pandemonium and crown himself king. The French defended and forced The Prince to come to an agreement.
The Treaty of Bretigny was signed. The peace lasted from 1360 to 1369.
The peace ended when Aquitaine revolted against France over taxes.
The Black Prince died before his father, who was also dying, leaving England with a weakened defense. Richard II, The Black Prince’s son, became king of England as a young child. During his reign, he lost many of the French lands that they had acquired.
A second peace was signed. It lasted from 1389 to 1415.
In 1415, England got a new king, Henry V, who decided to start the war again. The English won at Harfleur, but King Henry decided to go straight to Calais without invading any other cities. The French had different ideas and met Henry at the Battle of Agincourt.
The small field of Agincourt gave advantage to England’s smaller and weaker army. The French were weighed down by their heavy armor. The Battle of Agincourt ended with an English victory. About 400 English soldiers died in that battle, the French lost about 6,000 soldiers.
King Henry retook much of Normandy and became Duke of Normandy.
In 1420, Henry married the princess of France, Catherine. The Treaty of Troyes was signed, ending the war.
The treaty made it so Henry’s heirs would inherit the French throne.
In 1422, Henry and his queen were living at Senlis when Henry fell ill and died. Henry’s infant son couldn’t inherit both thrones, the English and the French, so the Duke of Bedford was appointed to oversee the transfer and the war.
In the 1400’s the French started to gain control of the battlefield.
Joan was born in 1412 in France. At the age of 12 she claimed to hear the voices of the Saints and she said she could also see them. They sent her messages told her to help recapture France.
At age 16, she tried to have a talk with the king, Charles VII. After trying 3 times, she finally did get to talk with him, after the defeat at Armagnac in 1429. She offered herself as a leader to the king and said she would help regain his country. She was tested by priests.
Then Joan wrote a letter to the English saying that she would drive them out of France if they didn’t leave. The English laughed at her letter, saying that a woman could never defeat them.
Joan had a suit of armor made and she organized her army. People who had given up on winning joined her army because they heard it had a Saint at its head.
Joan led a siege against Saint Loup, an English held church. The French won. Joan conquered Jargeau and Troyes next. This made a clear path to Reims so Charles VII could be coronated. Charles went to Reims and was coronated. Joan watched and said that the will of God had finally been accomplished.
Joan had many other victories until she was captured by the Burgundian army. 4 months later, she was brought to the English.
The French tried many times to get her back, but failed.
In captivity, Joan was tried for heresy and burned at the stake on May 30, 1431.
Joan was made a Saint and is now known as the “Maiden of Orleans”.
In the end, the French got to be in control of France, and the English were in control of England.
By Amelia Jacobson