The History of Islam

Week #5 Essay, History


History of Islam


In Mecca, 610 AD, a man named Muhammad of age 40 had a vision (called a revelation). In the revelation the angel Gabriel came to him and told him to start a religion called Islam.

When Muhammad tried to tell Mecca about the new religion the people didn’t want it. Some people tried to assassinate him. Muhammad fled to Medina for safety. When he told the people of Medina about his revelation and the new religion, the people of Medina took it as their new religion. Medina became the first Islamic city.

In the Islamic religion, God is known as Allah. The Islamic people believe Allah created the world. The two most important Islamic holy books are the: Qu’ran and the Hadith. For every Muslim there are five pillars of basic requirements and they are:

#1: Shahadah

#2: Salat

#3: Zakat

#4: Fast of Ramadan (Sawm)

#5: Hajj

In 632 Muhammad led the first Islamic Pilgrimage. A few months later, he fell ill and died.

After Muhammad died, the Rashidun dynasty started. The Rashidun dynasty was made of elected rulers. The order of which the rulers came was:

#1: Abu Bakr

#2: Umar – Died from assassination in 644

#3: Uthman

#4: Ali – Also died from assassination

All of the Rashiduns were family or very close friends of Muhammad. The Muslims argued over who was the true First Caliph and they split into groups called Sects. They split into three groups:

#1: Sunni – The Sunni believed that Abu Bakr was the true Caliph

#2: Shia – The Shia believed that Ali was the true Caliph

#3: Sufi – The Sufi believed in self-exanimation and becoming closer to Allah

After the Rashiduns came the Umayyad dynasty. During the Umayyad dynasty there was a really important battle called the Battle of Tours. The Battle of Tours represents the end of Muslim conquest.

The Abbasid dynasty came a while after the Umayyad dynasty. During the Abbasid dynasty the Empire rose from 40% to almost universal power. Also Public Hospitals came to be during this time. The Abbasid dynasty lasted 500 years (750-1258) and then fell. Not from defeat, but from neglect and laziness of the leaders.

After the Abbasid dynasty came the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire became one of the strongest Empires of all time. The Ottoman Empire lasted 600 years, eventually falling apart in World War 1.


And that’s the History of Islam.


By Amelia Jacobson


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